US Gross Domestic Product Growth (GDP) in Q4 2023 Exceeds Expectations

James Hyerczyk
Updated: Jan 25, 2024, 15:08 UTC

Q4 2023 GDP surpasses estimates, expanding at 3.3%, exceeding the projected 2.0%.

US GDP Report

Key Points

  • Stronger GDP growth than anticipated in Q4 2023.
  • Consumer spending and exports fuel economic expansion.
  • Short-term outlook remains cautiously optimistic.


The Bureau of Economic Analysis has released the “advance” estimate for the fourth quarter of 2023, revealing a robust growth rate in the United States’ real gross domestic product (GDP). This report outlines the key findings and provides insights into the factors driving this economic performance.

Surprising Growth Rate

The advance estimate indicates that the U.S. economy grew at an annual rate of 3.3 percent in the fourth quarter of 2023. This exceeded the pre-report estimate, which projected a more modest increase of 2.0 percent. The third quarter had witnessed an even stronger expansion, with real GDP rising by 4.9 percent.

Contributing Factors

Several key factors contributed to this growth. Consumer spending, exports, state and local government spending, nonresidential fixed investment, federal government spending, private inventory investment, and residential fixed investment all experienced increases. Importantly, these positive developments were not limited to a single sector of the economy but spanned various areas.

Consumer Spending and Exports

Consumer spending, a significant driver of economic activity, saw an uptick. Both services and goods contributed to this increase, with notable growth in food services, accommodations, health care, and various goods categories. Exports also played a role, with both goods and services, including financial services, experiencing growth.

Government Spending and Investment

Government spending, both at the state and local levels and at the federal level, increased, reflecting investments in employees and structures. Nonresidential fixed investment expanded, driven by intellectual property products, structures, and equipment. This indicates confidence in future economic prospects.

Inventory Investment and Imports

Private inventory investment also witnessed growth, led by wholesale trade industries. While imports increased, they are subtracted from the GDP calculation, so their impact on overall growth was partially offset by other factors.

Short-Term Forecast

Looking ahead, the short-term forecast remains cautiously optimistic. Economic growth is expected to continue, but the pace might vary. The ample supply and potential for increased output could limit gains, and some traders may view the current rally as an opportunity for selling. The upcoming “second” estimate for the fourth quarter, based on more complete data, will provide additional insights.


The advance estimate of GDP growth for the fourth quarter of 2023 exceeded expectations, showcasing a resilient and expanding U.S. economy. Factors such as consumer spending, government investments, and exports have played crucial roles in driving this growth. While the short-term outlook appears favorable, it is essential to remain vigilant and monitor economic developments closely. The second estimate, due in February, will offer a more comprehensive picture of the economic landscape.

About the Author

James is a Florida-based technical analyst, market researcher, educator and trader with 35+ years of experience. He is an expert in the area of patterns, price and time analysis as it applies to futures, Forex, and stocks.

Did you find this article useful?